Evaluation of the National Disaster Mitigation Program – Final Report
Table of contents
This report presents the results of the evaluation of the National Disaster Mitigation Program (NDMP).
What we examined
The purpose of the evaluation was to examine the relevance and performance of NDMP from its inception in 2015-16 to 2018-19. The NDMP was created in April 2015 to reduce the impacts of flood disasters on Canadians by focusing investments on significant, recurring flood risk and costs; and to facilitate private residential insurance for overland flooding. The NDMP has two components: The Mitigation Contribution Component (MCC) and the Targeted National Capabilities Component (TNCC).
What we found
Flood disasters are the most common and costly natural disasters affecting Canada. There is a continued need for a national approach to support investments in flood disaster mitigation.
The NDMP complements other federal programs that provide funding for mitigation projects such as the Public Safety Canada’s Disaster Financial Assistance Arrangements Program and the Infrastructure Canada’s Disaster Mitigation and Adaptation Fund.
There is a need for future mitigation programming to consider interplays between hazards to increase resilience in Canadian communities.
The MCC contributed to an increase in the number of Canadian communities that undertook mitigation investment projects. 363 projects were funded in 117 communities; mostly flood mapping and non-structural and structural mitigation projects. Challenges were found with regards to the ability of the MCC to invest the total allocated budget, and for some PTs and First Nations communities to fully participate in the program.
Administrative requirements and time limits for structural projects were seen as barriers.
Analysis of demographic data revealed that the NDMP funded communities with higher representation of vulnerable populations, such as seniors and Indigenous People.
The TNCC developed some of the planned mitigation tools including the Federal Flood Mapping Series and the National Emergency Management System. There is a continued need to further promote the utilization of these tools.
The TNCC conducted targeted awareness campaigns and hosted four Annual National Roundtables for Disaster Risk Reduction as part of the engagement activities; and advanced discussion on flood insurance across Canada. There is still a need to expand Canada’s flood insurance market.
In the spirit of continuous improvement and the potential for future disaster mitigation programming, the Assistant Deputy Minister of the Emergency Management and Programs Branch should:
- Consider taking measures to better align the program timelines and processes with the PTs, and to streamline administrative and reporting requirements to facilitate participation of all eligible recipients;
- Examine existing requirements for structural mitigation projects (stream 4), including exploring potential options relating to the time limit, to ref projects, including the 24 month time limit to reflect the realities in planning and completing structural mitigation;
- Further promoting the use of the national risk and resilience tools and repository among relevant audiences.
Future Mitigation Programs
- Explore policy options to support all-hazards mitigation efforts to reduce disaster risks and related recovery costs across Canada.
Management Action Plan
Program Management accepts all recommendations and will implement an action plan.
1. Overview and Background
The National Disaster Mitigation Program (NDMP) was created in April 2015 to address the increasing risks and costs associated with flood disasters in Canada. The NDMP is comprised of two main components:
- Mitigation Contribution Component (MCC) provides financial support to provinces (up to 50%) and territories (up to 75%) for cost-shared projects in four stream of eligible activities:
- Flood Risk Assessment (stream 1);
- Flood Mapping (stream 2);
- Flood Mitigation Planning (stream 3); and
- Non-structural and small-scale structural measures (stream 4).
- Targeted National Capabilities Component (TNCC) helps in building the foundation for future mitigation efforts by investing in three key areas:
- National risk and resilience and return on investment tools;
- National risk and resilience repository; and
- National public awareness and engagement activities.
2. Evaluation Purpose and Methodology
The evaluation assessed the relevance and performance (effectiveness and efficiency) of the NDMP from its inception in 2015-16 to 2018-19; and sought to identify lessons learned during the design and implementation of the program as well as best practices to enhance Canada’s approach to flood disasters.
2.1 Lines of Evidence
Data collection for this evaluation included the following lines of evidence:
Interviews: Thirty-five interviews were conducted with program representatives, federal partners and external representatives including Provincial government representatives and subject matter experts.
Literature and document review: This included academic research, media publications, public reports, and corporate documents (inception, policy and program documents).
Review of financial and performance data: The evaluation analyzed the financial information, examined the program and funded projects performance data.
The evaluation team did not contact communities where the mitigation projects took place, as Public Safety did not deal directly with communities, but rather with the Provincial or Territorial governments (PTs). The evaluation team attempted to contact all PT representatives. Some PT representatives were not available at the time of this evaluation; in these cases, the evaluation team relied on project documents and other documents to establish findings.
3.1.1 Continued Need
Finding: There is a continued need for a national approach to support investments in flood disaster mitigation measures. Future mitigation programming should consider interplay between hazards to increase resilience in Canadian communities.
Floods disasters are the most common natural disasters affecting Canadian communities, and among the most costly. Between 2008 and 2018, the Canada Disaster Database recorded 170 major disasters resulting in tens of billions of dollars in damages, of these 108 were flooding incidents, including flooding from major storms.
Since 1970, the Government of Canada has paid out $5 Billion in post-disaster assistance through the Disaster Financial Assistance Arrangements (DFAA) to help Provinces and Territories with response and recovery costs. Half of this amount has been paid out in the last five years, which shows that disasters are increasing in both numbers and costs. Many have attributed this increase to climate change. Flood disasters have accounted for almost 75% of DFAA events and 2/3 of all DFAA payments.
Read More: https://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/vltn-ntnl-dsstr-mtgtn-prgrm-2019/index-en.aspx